作者: 留学资讯  发布:2020-01-06

  D) It tries to kill the snails with the help of climate change。

  A) XXX enemy first。 B) Eliminating the enemy one by one。

  B) It will invade other rice-growing regions of Europe。

  42。 Activating the XXX network involved in socially motivated learning and memory may XXX tap XXX mental powers。

  B) It is of great significance in the records of Spanish history。

  Over the next year and a half investigators will test the various strains of saline-tolerant rice they’ve concocted。 In 2018, farmers will plant the varieties with the most promise in the Ebro Delta and Europe’s other two main rice-growing regions—along the Po in Italy, and France’s Rhône。 A season in the field will help determine which, if any, of the varieties are ready for commercialization。

  The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According to New England Historical Society, Hale wrote only one part of the poem, but claimed authorship。 Regardless of the author, it seems that the poem was __34__by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was followed to school by a lamb in 1816, it caused some problems。 A bystander named John Roulstone wrote a poem about the event, then, at some point, Hale herself seems to have helped write it。 However, if a 1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted, Hale claimed for the __35__of her life that “Some other people pretended that someone else wrote the poem”。

  48。 What do we learn about “Project Neurice”?


  G。 The results: Teens who played the Iowa Gambling Task under the eyes of fellow adolescents engaged in more exploratory behavior, learned faster from both positive and negative outcomes, and achieved better performance on the task than those who played in solitude。 “What our study suggests is that teenagers learn more quickly and more effectively when their peers are present than when they‘re on their own,” Steinberg says。 And this finding could have important implications for how we think about educating adolescents。

  L。 And although anxious parents may not welcome the notion, educators could turn adolescent recklessness to academic ends。 “Risk taking in an educational context is a vital skill that enables progress and creativity,” wrote Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a cognitive neuroscientist at University College London, in a review published last year。 Yet, she noted, many young people are especially risk averse at school—afraid that one low test score or mediocre grade could cost them a spot at a selective university。 We should assure such students that risk, and even peer pressure, can be a good thing—as long as it happens in the classroom and not the car。

  Section A

  39。 The XXX a mate and getting married accounts for adolescents’ greater attention to social interactions。

  Section B

  C) Killing two bird with one stone。 D) Using one evil to combat the other。

  Questions 46 to 50 are based on the following passage。

  E) fierce M) supposed

  Peer Pressure Has a Positive Side

  Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Little Lamb,” the eternal nursery rhyme (儿歌) about girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb? This is still disputed, but it’s clear that the woman 26 for writing it was one of America’s most fascinating 27 。 In honor of the poem publication on May 24,1830, here’s more about the 28 author’s life。

  36。 It is thought probable that the human brain is particularly good at picking-up socially important information。

  E。 In a 2011 study, Steinberg and his colleagues turned to functional MRI (磁共振) to investigate how the presence of peers affects the activity in the adolescent brain。 They scanned the brains of 40 teens and adults who were playing a virtual driving game designed to test whether players would brake at a yellow light or speed on through the crossroad。

  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

  D。 Yet in the years following the publication of this study, Steinberg began to believe that this interpretation did not capture the whole picture。 As he and other researchers examined the question of why teens were more apt to take risks in the company of other teenagers, they came to suspect that a crowd‘s influence need not always be negative。 Now some experts are proposing that we should take advantage of the teen brain’s keen sensitivity to the presence of friends and leverage it to improve education。

  A。 Parents of teenagers often view their children‘s friends with something like suspicion。 They worry that the adolescent peer group has the power to push its members into behavior that is foolish and even dangerous。 Such wariness is well founded: statistics show, for example, that a teenage driver with a same-age passenger in the car is at higher risk of a fatal crash than an adolescent driving alone or with an adult。

  Direction: There are 2 passages in this section。 Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statement。 For each of them there are four choice and our marked A),B),C) and D)。You should decide on the best choice and nark the corresponding letter on Answer sheet2 with a single line through the centre。

  The battle is currently being waged on land, in greenhouses at the University of Barcelona。 Scientists working under the banner “Project Neurice” are seeking varieties of rice that can withstand the increasing salinity without losing the absorbency that makes European rice ideal for traditional Spanish and Italian dishes。

  44。 When we absorb information for the purpose of imparting it to ethers, we do so with greater secretary and depth。

  K。 Yet our schools focus primarily on students as individual entities。 What would happen if educators instead took advantage of the fact that teens are powerfully compelled to think in social terms? In Social, Lieberman lays out a number of ways to do so。 History and English could be presented through the lens of the psychological drives of the people involved。 One could therefore present Napoleon in terms of his desire to impress or Churchill in terms of his lonely melancholy。 Less inherently interpersonal subjects, such as math, could acquire a social aspect through team problem solving and peer tutoring。 Research shows that when we absorb information in order to teach it to someone else, we learn it more accurately and deeply, perhaps in part because we are engaging our social cognition。

  40。 According to Steinberg, the presence of peers increases the speed and effectiveness of teenagers’ leaning。

  C) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are waging a battle of similar importance。


  A) Its goals will have to be realized at a cost。

  The Ebro Delta, in Spain, famous as a battleground during the Spanish Civil War, is now the setting for a different contest, one that is pitting rice farmers against two enemies: the rice-eating giant apple snail, and rising sea levels。 What happens here will have a bearing on the future of European rice production and the overall health of southern European wetlands。

  D) Rice farmers in the Ebro Delta are XXX as hard a time as in the war。

  Passage One

  A) It had great impact on the life of Spanish rice farmers。

  J。 If humans are generally geared to recall details about one another, this pattern is probably even more powerful among teenagers who are hyperattentive to social minutiae: who is in, who is out, who likes whom, who is mad at whom。 Their penchant for social drama is not—or not only—a way of distracting themselves from their schoolwork or of driving adults crazy。 It is actually a neurological(神经的) sensitivity, initiated by hormonal changes。 Evolutionarily speaking, people in this age group are at a stage in which they can prepare to find a mate and start their own family while separating from parents and striking out on their own。 To do this successfully, their brain prompts them to think and even obsess about others。

  D) features L) rest

  C) It multiplies at a speed beyond human imagination。

  43。 The presence of peer intensifies the feeling of rewards in teens’ brains。

  D) It was introduced into the rice fields on purpose。

  47。 What may be XXX for rice farmers to employ in flghting their enemies?

  I。 The study also found that when subjects thought about and later recalled descriptions in terms of their informational content, regions associated with factual memory, such as the medial temporal lobe, became active。 But thinking about or remembering descriptions in terms of their social meaning activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex—part of the brain‘s social network—even as traditional memory regions registered low levels of activity。 More recently, as he reported in a 2012 review, Lieberman has discovered that this region may be part of a distinct network involved in socially motivated learning and memory。 Such findings, he says, suggest that “this network can be called on to process and store the kind of information taught in school—potentially giving students access to a range of untapped mental powers。”

  G) latter O) versatile

  49。 What does Neurice project manager say about the giant apple snail?

  C) Its immediate priority is to bring the pest under control。

  46。 Why does the author mention the Spanish Civil War at the beginning of the passage?

  H) obsessed

  B) It aims to increase the yield of Spanish rice。

  Located on the Mediterranean just two hours south of Barcelona, the Ebro Delta produces 120 million kilograms of rice a year, making it one of the continent’s most important rice-growing areas。 As the sea creeps into these freshwater marshes, however, rising salinity (盐分) is hampering rice production。 At the same time, this sea-water also kills off the greedy giant apple snail, an introduced pest that feeds on young rice plants。 The most promising strategy has become to harness one foe against the other。

  38。 Students should be told that risk XXX classroom can be something positive。

  Originally from South America, the snails were accidentally introduced into the Ebro Delta by Global Aquatic Tecnologies, a company that raised the snails for fresh-water aquariums (水族馆), but failed to prevent their escape。 For now, the giant apple snail’s foothold in Europe is limited to the Ebro Delta。 But the snail continues its march to new territory, says Serrat。 “The question is not if it will reach other rice-growing areas of Europe, but when。”

  B。 In a 2005 study, psychologist Laurence Steinberg of Temple University and his co-author, psychologist Margo Gardner, then at Temple, divided 306 people into three age groups: young adolescents, with a mean age of 14; older adolescents, with a mean age of 19; and adults, aged 24 and older。 Subjects played a computerized driving game in which the player must avoid crashing into a wall that materializes, without warning, on the roadway。 Steinberg and Gardner randomly assigned some participants to play alone or with two same-age peers looking on。

  C) characters K) reputed

  37。 It can be concluded from experiment that the presence of peers increases risk-taking by adolescents and youth。

  C。 Older adolescents scored about 50 percent higher on an index of risky driving when their peers were in the room—and the driving of early adolescents was fully twice as reckless when other young teens were around。 In contrast, adults behaved in similar ways regardless of whether they were on their own or observed by others。 “The presence of peers makes adolescents and youth, but not adults, more likely to take risks,” Steinberg and Gardner concluded。

  H。 Matthew D。 Lieberman, a social cognitive neuroscientist at the University of California, Los Angeles, and author of the 2013 book Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect, suspects that the human brain is especially adept at learning socially salient information。 He points to a classic 2004 study in which psychologists at Dartmouth College and Harvard University used functional MRI to track brain activity in 17 young men as they listened to descriptions of people while concentrating on either socially relevant cues (for example, trying to form an impression of a person based on the description) or more socially neutral information (such as noting the order of details in the description)。 The descriptions were the same in each condition, but people could better remember these statements when given a social motivation。

  45。 Some experts are suggesting that we turn peer influence to good use in education。

  F。 The brains of teenagers, but not adults, showed greater activity in two regions associated with rewards when they were being observed by same-age peers than when alone。 In other words, rewards are more intense for teens when they are with peers, which motivates them to pursue higher-risk experiences that might bring a big payoff (such as the thrill of just making the light before it turns red)。 But Steinberg suspected this tendency could also have its advantages。 In his latest experiment, published online in August, Steinberg and his colleagues used a computerized version of a card game called the Iowa Gambling Task to investigate how the presence of peers affects the way young people gather and apply information。

  A) It can survive only on southern European wetlands。

  As an EU-funded effort, the search for salt-tolerant varieties of rice is taking place in all three countries。 Each team is crossbreeding a local European short-grain rice with a long-grain Asian variety that carries the salt-resistant gene。 The scientists are breeding successive generations to arrive at varieties that incorporate salt tolerance but retain about 97 percent of the European rice genome (基因组)。

  “The project has two sides,” says Xavier Serrat, Neurice project manager and researcher at the University of Barcelona。 “The short-term fight against the snail, and a mid- to long-term fight against climate change。 But the snail has given the project greater urgency。”

  A) campaign I) proclamation

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks。 You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage。 Read the passage through carefully before making your choices。 Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter。 Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre。 You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once。

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with ten statements attached to it。 Each statement contains information given in one of the paragraphs。 Identify the paragraph from which the information is derived。 You may choose a paragraph more than once。 Each paragraph is marked with a letter。 Answer the question by marking the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2。

  B) career J) rectified

  Section C

  F) inspired N) traditional

  Hale wasn’t just a writer, she was also a 29 social advocate, and she was particularly 30 with an ideal New England, which she associated with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral influence,” she began a nationwide 31 to have a national holiday declared that would bring families together while celebrating the 32 festivals。 In 1863, after 17 years of advocacy including letters to five presidents, Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War, issued a __33__ setting aside the last Thursday in November for the holiday。

  41。 Teenagers’ parents are often concerned XXX negative peer influence。